This study investigates early and modern sources of Islamic law, looking for their viewpoints and attitudes towards treating disabilities. Twomainmethods of treating disabilities have been traced. The firstmethod, termed in Islamic sources as physical medicine, is based on using medicines and drugs as known within the realms of the science of medicine. The second method, called spiritual medicine, makes use of specific religious deeds or formulae, including, for instance, texts from the Quran and words ascribed to the Prophet of Islam. This study presents a detailed overview of these two methods within Islamic law, the attitudes of Muslim jurists towards these two methods, and, finally, “treatments” developed within each method to prevent the occurrence of disability or to cure it.